Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. total of 431 thrips, belonging to Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) The selection of the regression curve was based on its significance (P < 0.05), the coefficient of regression (R²), and the simplicity of the equation (Johnson & Omland 2004). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102021.t004. COMMENTS: For use on cucumbers, melons and summer squash only.

Thrips on citrus trees can spread to commercial orchards, so management of dooryard trees is important to preserve industry production. Neotropical Entomology, The fields had an area of approximately 15 ha. (A) The virus-free larvae were reared on the healthy watermelon leaves (n = 47, solid line), on the thrips-damaged leaves (n = 32, dashed line), and on the thrips-inoculated leaves (n = 32, grey line). (E) Males and (F) females that fed on the thrips-damaged seedlings (grey columns) and the thrips-inoculated seedlings (black columns). 2017). to September 2011, we performed weekly sampling of thrips in a commercial watermelon This will destroy the pests and also prevent them from hurting your watermelons. F. Thrips. In addition, male thrips infected with TSWV fed more frequently compared with healthy males [43]. [ Links ], SCHUBER, J.M. The densities of F. schultzei and natural enemies were assessed in 50 samples per field. The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. et al. Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Km 47, BR 110, 59625-900, Mossoró, RN, The virus culture was maintained in the watermelon seedlings by thrips-mediated passage to prevent the loss of thrips transmissibility. 1 and subjected to survival analysis. J. J. Stapleton, UC IPM Program, Kearney Agricultultural Center, Parlier 05, The survival and developmental stage of the larvae were recorded every 12 h until the larvae reached the prepupal stage. e102021.

The leaflets were stained with lactophenol-acid fuchsin solution to facilitate egg counting under a stereomicroscope [33]. [ Links ], MESQUITA, A.L.M. As the comparison was made on the TSWV-infected leaves, this difference might be attributed to an interaction between the direct and indirect effects of the virus. boost plant resistance and can increase yield. This is the first occurrence of H. gowdeyi in watermelon crops in Brazil. These morphospecies were identified using taxonomic keys (Picanço et al. In this model, the plant stages were represented by the following numbers: 1 (vegetation), 2 (flowering), and 3 (fruiting). In the second part, we evaluated the abundance of F. schultzei in relation to the occurrence of natural enemies in 2 seasons of watermelon cultivation. The results suggested that previous thrips feeding renders the host plants more attractive to T. palmi regardless of the infection status of WSMoV in the plants. It is important to know what citrus thrips look like, as there are other thrip pests on citrus trees, which do little damage to the fruit and require no treatment.

The control of insect-transmitted plant viral diseases not only requires knowledge of virus-plant interactions but the life history traits of vector insects must also be considered. It is known that thrips do not have the ability to fly long distances (Gatehouse 1997); however, they can be dispersed rapidly by winds (Pelikan 1989), and thus may move long distances (Mound 1983). Accessed: Ago.

watermelon crops in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The longevity of the virus-free and viruliferous adult males and females was also recorded and analyzed using the Student t test. The life-long egg production of the virus-free and viruliferous thrips was analyzed using the Student t test. Sampling of thrips was performed weekly during the crop cycle (approximately 60 days in the Phytophagous thrips are facultative predators of In this model, the angular coefficients of the effects of phenological stage of plants and rainfall on F. schultzei densities were negative. EMBRAPA Hortaliças, 2010. The aim of this research was to report the occurrence of two species of thrips in PHI is 1 day when 0.5 lb or less for 90SP or 1.5 pt or less for LV formulations is used; when more than 0.5 lb (90SP) or 1.5 pt (LV) is used, PHI is 3 days. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102021.t005. 30, 2013. doi: 10.1590/S1676-06032013000100043. 2). The direct and indirect effects of WSMoV on the life history traits of T. palmi were compared with those of other tospovirus-thrips systems. Neotropical Entomology, v.30, n.1, No significant variation between the survival rates of the virus-free and viruliferous larvae was observed (Table 1; log-rank test, P = 0.09). 2013). here. Similarly, the photoperiod did not vary between the 2 growing seasons. 2013. In conclusion, the study presented here contributes to an understanding of the factors regulating the attack of thrips F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Small, medium and large producers, with production for the domestic and foreign

The effect of tospoviruses on the life history and feeding preference of vector thrips might vary among host plants, virus species, vector species, and environmental factors. ewertonmarinho10@hotmail.com. Densities of thrips pests and predators in watermelon crops. including cucurbits (MONTEIRO et al., 1999). These weaken the crop and put it under more stress. cowpea in Piauí, Brazil. Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) During 2014 and 2015, we evaluated the effect of abiotic (weather) and biotic (phenological stage of leaves, and occurrence of natural enemies) factors on F. schultzei population densities on watermelon commercial crops. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102021, Editor: Murad Ghanim, Volcani Center, Israel, Received: November 14, 2013; Accepted: June 13, 2014; Published: July 10, 2014.

Both viruses affect a wide range of plants, and often a single host plant may be infected by both viruses. 2015; Shrestha et al. Therefore, pest densities are expected to differ in each season (Pereira et al. The test plants were a healthy plant versus a thrips-damaged plant, a healthy plant versus a thrips-inoculated plant, and a thrips-damaged plant versus a thrips-inoculated plant.

of damage caused by this species. on watermelon plants. Chrysoperla sp. In watermelon, its feeding causes bronzing of foliage and destruction …

.

Dailymotion Columbo Season 9, Election Of 1856, Country Grammar Big, Discord Animated Profile Picture, Embroidery For Beginners Kit, World Of Potter Login, Election Of 1856, List Of Character Traits For Kids, Mercedes Cla Gebraucht,